Coursework Example: Effects of Online Sales of Consumer Goods

Economic Factors Enhancing Online Sales

Economic Effects of Online Sales of Consumer Goods to High Street Sellers Clothes

Various changes in economic market structure have enhanced the growth of online sales of consumer goods like clothes. The American government supports e- commerce because of various economic benefits that come with it. The internet covers a larger clothes market with various prices and this has made more people to shop online for clothes because of the wide variety. People have to leave the high streets because they have less variety compared to the online sellers.

Economic Factors Enhancing Online Sales

In addition, any sellers have also opted the online way because on the internet a wider customer base accesses their products. Another economic factor that has encouraged growth of online sales of clothes is the fact that the online market is very competitive and the sellers have reduced the prices to attract buyers. The retail shops at high streets have higher prices compared to the internet and this has encouraged more people to shop online for clothes. These factors have led to a situation where the high street sellers of clothes are competing with online sellers on price and non-price factors (Siddiqui, McColl & Birtwistle 2003, p.67).

Effects on Brick and Motar sellers in the High Streets

For many reasons like price convenience and time saving, people opt for online shopping of cloths. Online shopping offers better prices and as a result, it has attracted more people over time. Research shows that people between the age of 20 and 30 buy nearly half of their clothes online. It has had such a huge economic impact on the bricks and Motor sellers in the high streets. To stay relevant and competitive to the online market the bricks and motor sellers have to come up with strategies that will give them competitive advantage in the harsh global markets (Rajamma, Paswan & Ganesh 2007, p.154). The high streets sellers have to integrate their business with the online market so that even their products get accessed through the internet. Because of this, they must invest more in their businesses and avail their products online through websites. The sellers in the high streets have to renovate their shops in order to make them nicer and appealing to the customers. If the shop is appealing it lures the customer to get it. Customers are more tempted to enter shops that look nice because they assume they will find nice things. They have no option but to make the shops a nice place to visit. The sellers have to locate their shops in strategic places where they are easily accessible. The retail shops should not be in back streets and lanes. The bricks and motor sellers have to invest and make their stores bigger with more expensive, diversified and quality clothes in them. Despite having quality and attractive clothes, they should also have attractive price discounts, offers so that they can remain relevant, and counter the highly competitive online sellers (Torkzadeh & Dhillon 2002, p.139). Brick and motor sellers in the high streets have to do away with clothes that do not gain as much from selling in the physical store like nappies and pampers. The high street sellers now focus on expensive designs of clothes that will attract the customers to try out before buying. As a result, makes them incur extra costs such as seeking advice from sales assistants who are competent. They now have to have cool cloth products, which gets the attention of the customer without much hustle (Lee & Lin 2005, p. 79). The sellers have to create good relation with their customers so that they can win their loyalty. Many small scale Bricks and motor sellers are registering losses and some of the have closed down because they have been unable to keep up with the rapid online competition.

Reference list

Lee, G G., & Lin, H F. 2005. Customer perceptions of e-service quality in online shopping. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management,33(2), 161-176. Torkzadeh, G, & Dhillon, G. 2002. Measuring factors that influence the success of Internet commerce. Information Systems Research, 13(2), 187-204. Siddiqui, N, O’Malley, A, McColl, JC, & Birtwistle, G, 2003. Retailer and consumer perceptions of online fashion retailers: web site design issues.Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 7(4), 345-355. Rajamma, RK, Paswan, AK, & Ganesh, G, 2007. Services purchased at brick and mortar versus online stores, and shopping motivation. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(3), 200-212.

Coursework Example: Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP)

CFRP - Carbone Fibre Reinforced Plastics


Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) also called DIALLED composite are materials that have been compressed by more 90 per cent of carbon fibres. Though expensive, they provide the highest mechanical properties, which are the strength and modulus of elasticity. CFRP is extremely strong and exhibits higher levels of rigidity than other matrix materials. They have low density intertwined level with excellent damping properties, high resistance to impacts, and thermal expansions that are exactly modifiable to supplement their complex features profile. The mix of these features make it a preference to other plastic materials like glass fibres and even such metals as iron and aluminium, in the manufacturing sector (Yao, Jacques & Norbert 2012, p. 15). For instance, in aerospace engineering, it is used for wings of the Airbus A350 and A310. In the automobile industry, it is used predominantly for the production of motor racing cars such as the Formula One bolides. Many companies use it in the manufacturing of motorcycle frames, manufacture of robot arms, sleeves and reinforcement in turbo molecular drive shafts and pumps. CFRP unique properties make it possible for the manufacturing companies to manipulate its content to suit the demands of different products with variations on the geometry and profile requirement. They include autoclave, fibre winding, pultrusion, matched-die moulding, reaction injection moulding, board pressing, integrated manufacturing systems, vacuum bagging, and manual lamination for personal and small-scale production. The discussion below gives detailed information on the properties of CFRP. It then links the properties to its tailored applications in the automobile industry and the reasons as to why it is gradually replacing the metallic components (Subic 2012, p. 71).

Advantages of the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers

The carbon fibre reinforced polymer has high stiffness capabilities and is lightweight. For its weight, it is the strongest and stiffest material. It is outperforming other materials including timber, steel, and aluminium. It has approximately quarter-space gravity of iron and two thirds of aluminium making it stiffer and stronger than iron. It has high attenuation of vibration possible and high impact strength. It means that the material does not change shape even if someone ruptures it. Therefore, CFRP is suitable for low bending, high-speed operations, space saving, and activities that require suppression of vibrations (Durand 2008, p. 60). DIALLED composite has the highest thermal conductivity. It is the only existing plastic material that has thermal conductivity equivalent to copper. It realizes higher thermal conductivity than usual plastic materials. This feature makes CFRP suitable for lightweight heat sink, incombustibility, and performance at extremely high temperature. In addition, CFRP has a low coefficient of thermal expansion. This feature explains its excellent performance in thermal dimensional stability. It allows making the coefficient of thermal expansion to zero by the composite design. Therefore, it is perfect for situations that have high levels of temperature fluctuations such as in automobiles (Deng 2008, p. 18). DIALLED composite has also an approximation of over 95 per cent reduction in components by combining forms and parts into simpler moulded-parts. Overall, it shows a reduction in the cost of production. These materials are also light allowing economy on parts and low operational costs. Moreover, the reduction in weight of the components of CFRP leads to low fuel consumption (Yao, Jacques & Norbert 2012, p. 15). CFRP is resistant to chemicals because it has low reactive capabilities. This feature makes it ideal as a protective covering for surfaces with spillages of chemicals that are fit for the automobile industry. In addition, CFRP is corrosion resistance. Therefore, automobile industries prefer it to other metals because the vehicle would last longer with the least maintenance. Companies may enhance the duration, for which their cars are likely to last by customizing its colours. It is possible for the manufacturers to add little chemicals to DIALLED composites and protect their cars against ultraviolet rays. In addition, CFRP materials are poor conductors of electricity (unless the manufacturers modifies it to conduct electricity), and anti-magnetic making it possible for the automobile industry to use it as an insulator. It could also be fire resistant if the producers incorporate some additives (Deng 2008, p. 26).

Processing Characteristics of the CFRP and High Production Rates of the Automobile Companies

The consumption of carbon fibre reinforced polymers stood at only 5 per cent of all the world production in 2012 and projected to clock 30 per cent by 2020 (Ekiz 2007, p. 12). The dismal usage of CFRP is associated with the incapacitation of companies to process the product in large quantities. The whole process of tailoring carbon into forms that automobile manufacturing companies can consume is a lengthy one. The pace, at which companies produce these CFRP, is sluggish and not capable of supplying the production chain of automobiles with the required input amount. In addition, the process also requires the company to invest a lot in technology for it to make various car components from these CFRP raw materials (Carnay 2011, p.1). Because of this fact, the demand for the product that has created an artificial shortage has been high. In response to the market demands, the prices of DIALLED composite materials have gone up. It means that the manufacturers have to find better ways of covering up for these losses making some of them shift back to the use of aluminium in their production of cars (Ekiz 2007, p. 12).

Decline in the Use of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers in the Automobile Industry

There is always artificial shortage in the production of CFRP leading to high prices of CFRP making companies resort to aluminium as demonstrated above. The reason for preference of Aluminium in productions of automobile is that it does not need the long processes, through which the companies using CFRP must systematically go. Consequently, the use of aluminium in car production saves time. Other than the long process that wastes time, the company would be compelled to hire more labourers since the use of CFRP requires much work force (Carnay 2011, p.1). Carnay (2011, p.1) notes that, in the short-run, CFRP saves money by using CFRP. However, the savings are ploughed back to the production cost in the form of buying expensive raw materials, compensation for time lost, and hiring more labour force. For this reason, many companies are shifting back to the use of aluminium in their production of automobiles. He warns that, not unless the intense labour use, and high rate of technology in the productions of CFRP is reverted, the use of DIALLED composites in the production of cars may be abandoned (Carnay 2011, p.1). Aluminium has immensely contributed to the decline of the CFRP use in the automobile industry. Firstly, aluminium is readily available and has a very straightforward production process making it possible to produce it in large scale. Therefore, the companies that produce big volumes of cars can use aluminium conveniently unlike CFRP. Secondly, it is easier to process and tailor the aluminium materials to different car components and then join the parts together. Thirdly, there are five different types of the aluminium alloys with various properties suited for a particular function within the car. Fourthly, the improvement of technology on the use of aluminium has also made it better for manufacturers of cars. For example, heat-treating using aluminium enhances deformability properties of the car to absorb crash and reduce damage. Moreover, firms can tailor it into different shapes more easily and at lower temperatures than CRFP. Manufacturers will soon be joining parts using the cheap technology of bonding since there are plans to use epoxy joining and reducing the weight of aluminium (Carney 2011, p. 1).

Reference List

  1. Carnay, D 2011, Ferrari prefers aluminium over carbon fiber, viewed 23 April 2014, <>.
  2. Deng, J 2008, Durability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) repair/strengthening concrete beams, University of Wyoming, Laramie.
  3. Durand, LP 2008, Composite materials research progress, Nova Science Publishers, New York.
  4. Ekiz, E 2007, Improving steel behavior using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrapping, University of Michigan Press, Michigan.
  5. Subic, AJ 2012, Sustainable automotive technologies 2012: proceedings of the 4th International Conference, Springer, Berlin.
  6. Yao, W, Jacques, R & Norbert AH 2012, Fatigue behaviour of fiber reinforced polymers: experiments and simulations: Fifth International Conference on Fatigue of Composites, DEStech Publishers, Lancaster.

College Coursework Sample: Electronic Communication

college coursework sample electronic communication

Various threats face electrical contact. These threats may be technical, financial, physical and, cost. One of the most common risks of electrical communication is the power failure, which sometimes leads to equipment failure. Accidents are also a threat to electrical contact. The transmission lines in case of data transfer by the electrical wire may be destroyed through accident. For example, the pole holding up contact wire may be hit by a car. This leads the termination of the information signal in the transmission line.

This can be prevented by using stronger post that cannot be easily knocked down by cars. Natural disasters are a threat to the electrical connection this is because when they occur. The electrical communication systems get destroyed. For instance, when earthquake happens they tear up communication infrastructure. This completely disables the electrical communication system. This can be avoided by building communication infrastructure that can withstand earthquake shock. Malicious people can do deliberate physical attack.

The attack may disable the electrical communication devices attacked. Human error is also a threat to communication system. In fact, most of the electrical communication failures are caused by human error. Human error can be avoided by user being keen and attentive when handling the communication devices.

Data tampering when is in transit is one of the major threats of electronic communication. A malevolent third party can tampers with the data during transit. Example of data attack in transit is altering the amount of money transfer electronically from one bank account to another, i.e. changing $2000 to $ 20000. This attack can be prevented by interjecting whole set of a valid transfer into the network. This can be done by repeating an adequate $2000 money transfer a thousand times. Eavesdropping; it is secretly listening conversation without the communicating parties consent. For instance, in local area network (LAN) insiders hardwired to the network can access information that is they do not have clearance for. Also, network sniffers are installed on network traffic to eavesdropping (Albert, A. L. 1934).

Falsifying User Identities; all the users in the system must be known, to prevent falsifying user identities. Distributed network is prone to user identity falsification, which may lead to an unknown user accessing sensitive information. Individuals in electronic communication are facing identity theft. Internet hackers are stealing driver’s license numbers and credit card numbers. Criminals use this information to set up fake credit account using a stolen identity Moreover; non- repudiation is threat to identity. Criminals steal someone’s digital signature and use it to do illegal activities. The owners of the signing key can be held responsible for the illegal activities (Lin, X. 2008).

Password-related threats, in gigantic systems, the system user is required to memorize multiple passwords for the various application and services they use. For instance, a user can access several computers to on a workstation for testing and managing configurations of a development application and a personal computer for checking email. To remember the password they may use a word found in the dictionary. Dictionary attack can crack this password. The user with complex passwords may write them down on a piece of paper. If the paper fall on an attacker hands, the communication system is compromised. Lack of accountability can occur in electrical communication systems. This is seen when the system administrator cannot monitor all user’s activities in the system. Thus, the user are cannot be accountable for their activities.

Sophisticated user management requirements are a considerable threat to electrical communication; network may have complicated user management requirements. Any communication system must support several hundreds of users. Therefore, the system must be scalable. Due to the system large size managing password and accounts becomes hard which makes the system prone to attacks and error. To have a reliable security all the users in the system must be identified.

Some of the recommendation to the electrical communication technologies providers on how to protect their information transmission systems is. Providing users wireless data transmission with robust encryption. Secondly, the radio network has to be designed to cope with automated failover and redundancy. The communication systems towers must have lightning arrestors. In addition, the electrical communication system makes use of overlapping coverage, in addition to it can pose fallback and lessen operation modes if equipment failure occurs. The modern communications managing systems are now capable of promptly identifying when the equipment fails, thus immediately sending an alarm to the concerned party. Besides, a lot of them utilize full substantial sensors for tracking humidity, as well as temperatures. The electrical communication devices that are handled are rugged. Thus, they can withstand impact, properly work under external temperatures, and be smoke resistance and water proof (Lin, X. 2008).

The regulatory body guide engineer on how to effectively deal with development mythologies. For instance, encryption algorithms and methodologies are incorporated in the association of public safety communication officers (APCO) project 25 and Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) standards for digital radio systems, and several vendor supply cryptographic implementation that are certified as compliant National Institute of Standards, Federal Information Processing Standards FIPS-140-1 as well.(Voice radio communications guide for the fire service manual: a basic guide to system concepts and equipment. 2008).


  1. Lin, X. (2008). Secure and Privacy-Preserving Vehicular Communications.
  2. International Western Electric Company. International Standard Electric Corporation (New York, N.Y.), Standard Telephones and Cables (London, England), International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation., & Alcatel N.V. (1922). Electrical communication. New York: International Western Electric Co.
  3. Albert, A. L. (1934). Electrical Communication. New York: Wiley.
  4. Voice radio communications guide for the fire service manual: a basic guide to system concepts and equipment. (2008). Emmitsburg, MD: United States Fire Administration // International Association of Fire Fighters.